Inclusion International

Global Report on

Living independently and being included in the Community


Definitions to better understand Article 19 and the Global Report
This documents includes definitions of relevant terminology needed to better understand Art 19, and the concepts that surround it.

A Community for All: Implementing Article 19- A Guide for Monitoring Progress on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
The Community for All guide and checklist offers a detailed look at the rights identified in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), especially Article 19 of the CRPD which provides for the right to live independently and be included in the community.

Deinstitutionalization and human rights - the case of Leros. Professor Bob Grove Joint Chief Executive, Centre for Mental Health
Leros is an island in Greece where those with disabilities were sent to in the 1950s when the institutions in Athens became full. The majority of the people sent to Leros had no family to look after them. By the early 1980s there were over 2,000 people with disabilities on the island, being cared for by untrained islanders. When Greece joined the EU in 1981, funds were allocated to deal with the human rights abuses on Leros and support the creation of regional mental health services.

Outcomes in Different Residential Settings for People With Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review. Agnes Kozma, Jim Mansell, and Julie Beadle-Brown University of Kent, Tizard Centre (Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom)
This is a comprehensive review of recent research on outcomes in residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities, including both deinstitutionalization and postdeinstitutionalization studies. All research published in English from different countries around the world since 1997 were considered. This review explores whether recent experiences in different countries continues to provide evidence on the benefits of community living; provides research evidence useful to policymakers in order to decide about the allocation of resources to different types of living arrangements; looks at the implications of moving people with severe disabilities to community services; and analyzes well-established systems of community-based services and new forms of residential arrangements

Living Conditions among People with Disabilities in Mozambique. A national Representative Study. Sintef report by Arne H Eide and Yusman Kamaleri
This research report, undertaken from 2007 to 2008, provides results from the study of living conditions among people with functional limitations in Mozambique. Two comparative studies of different indicators of living conditions were carried out. These studies include: (i) a comparative study of households with and without family member(s) with functional limitation and (ii) a comparative study of individuals with and without functional limitation. In addition, a detailed study that specifically addresses the situation of individuals with functional limitations was also conducted.

Dispersed or Clustered Housing for Disabled Adults: A Systematic Review. National Disability Authority report by Prof. Jim Mansell, Tizard Centre Dr. Julie Beadle-Brown, Tizard Centre
This review reports on the experience of nearly 2,500 people from the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Netherlands and Australia. The research shows that dispersed housing in the community provides a better quality of life and is at least as cost-effective as congregate care. In some countries, clustered settings have been developed as an alternative to dispersed housing. This review examines the much smaller body of evidence comparing these services with dispersed housing. Its focus is the question whether, in developing services for people with disabilities, it is better to support people in ordinary housing dispersed among the general population or to support people in housing clustered together to form a separate enclave or community

Living Conditions among People with Disabilities in Lesotho. A national Representative Study. Sintef report by Yusman Kamaleri Arne H. Eide
This research report provides results from the study of living conditions among people with disabilities in Lesotho. Comparisons are made between disabled and non-disabled in household level and individual level. Disability was defined as limitation to perform certain activities that was measured according to the Washington City Group questions. Results obtained in Lesotho are also compared to those obtained in earlier studies carried out in Mozambique, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Malawi. The Lesotho study was undertaken in 2009-2010.

Residential Services for people with Developmental Disabilities: Status and Trends through 2008. K. Charlie Lakin, Sheryl Larson, Pat Salmi and Naomi Scott
The National Residential Information Systems Project (RISP) of the Research and Training Center on Community Living began in 1977.  This project gathers and reports statistics on people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) receiving residential and Medicaid-funded services in the United States. This report provides such statistics for the year ending June 30, 2008, as well as comparative statistics from earlier years.

World Report on Disability. World Health Organisation and the World Bank.
The World report on disability suggests that more than a billion people in the world today experience disability. People with disabilities have generally poorer health, lower education achievements, fewer economic opportunities and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities. This is largely due to the lack of services available to them and the many obstacles they face in their everyday lives. The report provides the best available evidence about what works to overcome barriers to health care, rehabilitation, education, employment, and support services, and to create the environments which will enable people with disabilities to flourish. The report ends with a concrete set of recommended actions for governments and their partners. 

Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011 by The Arc.
This report summarizes the results of The Arc’s nationwide online survey of Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports. It describes the urgent and unmet needs of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families. This survey of 5000 individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, their family members and caregivers covered a host of issues from education to housing to employment and planning for the future. The report also includes a call to action outlining a plan to address the troubling conditions discovered.

A number of countries in Eastern Europe which have traditionally relied heavily on institutional services are gearing up to deliver better on Article 19. David Towell, who has been visiting Slovakia since the fall of the Berlin Wall, has recently prepared an article for leaders there offering an international perspective on 'deinstitutionalisation'

Access to services for persons with disabilities in challenging enviroments. Handicap International
This publication presents a collection of articles by Handicap International staff, field partners and international experts. It follows directly from the exchanges during the seminar on access to services in Amman in December 2009. The collection consists of research, policy initiatives and case studies of differing perspectives on theme of access to services, and is intended to fuel information sharing, knowledge development and collective understanding.

Good Practice for Inclusive Local Governance in West Africa. By Handicap International
In West Africa, 7 countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Benin) have taken part in an initiative called “Rights in Action”, aimed at collecting good practices from multiple stakeholders on how to implement the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). This initiative uses the “Making it Work” methodology. The subject of the project is “Inclusive Local Governance”, linking with Article 29 of the UNCRPD. The recommendations from the report will be used to develop a series of training and advocacy activities across the region

Many of these resources demonstrate the importance of Article 19, and how together we can make Article 19 a reality for everyone. If you have articles or research you think we should be including in our work, please share them with us by emailing them to